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Taxonomía y análisis filogenético del género Psilocybe sensu lato (Fungi, Agaricales) - PDF

It goes without saying that there is clearly a relevant role for the European policies, first developed by the Council of Europe, and then implemented at different times by the Commission.

However, given the voluntary and advisory nature of these policies for the individual member states, it stands to reason that there must have been other factors.

In my view, these other factors can be classified in two groups. On the one hand, we have factors that are more global in nature and more related to the theoretical foundations of CLIL or related to the social context. On the other hand, this global explanation is complemented by more local factors which may be ascribed to the particular situation of the specific country where CLIL programmes have been implemented.

In the present article, I will attempt to describe these two areas by focussing first on the general factors that made it possible for CLIL to be accepted as an educational option in Europe and then by explaining the particular circumstances facilitating its spread in Spain. Global factors When considering CLIL, one of the main traits that stands out is the diversity of angles that can be adopted, which comes as no surprise given the multi-faceted nature of everything related to the school experience.

A look at the Spanish case 3 these authors and elsewhere Cenoz or CoyleI advocate that the perspective that best encompasses CLIL goals is educational, as the features that best define CLIL are precisely related to that school context where it materializes. In this article, these areas will be analysed under the following headings: The theoretical shift The enforcement of the European bilingual experiences known as CLIL was made possible by a shift, not only in one but in a whole range of disciplines, which simultaneously prepared the ground for all agents involved — teachers, policy makers, parents, etc.

This wide range of subjects share a common interest in human cognition and include disciplines such as Philosophy — especially as connected with language —, or Psychology and Neuroscience, which deal with topics such Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition SLA. Obviously, as a field far removed from immediate or practical concerns, one would not expect Philosophy to be in any way related to the evolution of bilingual education experiences.

However, the linguistic turn in philosophy Rortywhich is, in my opinion, at the heart of the social constructivist approach to education, reviewed below, points to a fact that has become generally accepted, i. Thus, incorporating additional languages to the linguistic repertoire of European citizens, which is the ultimate aim of CLIL, would result from an epistemological need to gain access to knowledge from perspectives other than the one provided by your first language.

The cultural nature of the European project becomes thus part of the educational process. More directly influential on CLIL is the body of research on bilingualism, an area clearly established within the field of Psycholinguistics. In my opinion, it would not have been possible to advance in the implementation of bilingual programmes such as CLIL if the theoretical outlook on bilingualism had not radically changed in the last 30 years or so.

In its place, the more experimentally-oriented research on bilingualism cf. Bialystok for a review has been able to depict a more objective image, comprising positive elements such as: Rather, the definition used is necessarily variable and refers to someone who uses two languages very often or, as Bialystok From its traditional emphasis on the use of methods, the language teaching profession has begun, encouraged by figures such as Stephen Krashen, to pay more attention to the principles underlying the acquisition process and to the host of factors which the ever-increasing SLA literature has stressed as being part of that process.

Speaking in terms of a usage-based approach to language learning, CLIL would mean paying attention to two of the mechanisms with a major role: Social and political forces The propaedeutic function of the Cognitive Sciences described above is not sufficient to explain why typically monolingual educational systems, which had previously only incorporated some classes in one or two different foreign languages FLsaccepted giving them a new leading role, as has happened in CLIL.

For such an important decision to be accepted by the general public, some social and political forces must have also prepared the ground. The major social force influencing educational agents parents, teachers, policy makers, etc. Students need FL skills if they want to participate in areas which are so characteristic of the present time such as information technologies, mass media and the economy cf.

The European Union has been only too aware of this situation and has promoted a labour force with practical language and intercultural skills, which are crucial for economic growth and better jobs, enabling European companies to compete effectively in the global marketplace. For European policy makers, CLIL is an essential part of this strategy as it provides for the preparation of this labour force from the very beginning.

Another major force is the societal and political reality of Europe which, in spite of its ups and downs, has contributed to the vision that multilingualism as an essential skill for a European citizenship. By promoting social cohesion and intercultural 6 dialogue, as well as creating the opportunities to discover other values, beliefs and behaviours, the European Union has favoured a positive perception of FL learning that has little by little permeated the opinions and attitudes of the societies of most European countries.

Finally, it also seems undeniable that, in spite of European efforts to promote multilingualism, the rise of English to the status of a lingua franca or an international language has had a major role in the consolidation of CLIL throughout Europe.

Educational bases In educational terms, the presence of CLIL can only be understood under a reevaluation of the importance of language in the school. Nowhere is this new assessment better expressed than in the book by Mary Schleppegrell entitled The Language of Schooling, in which she states that [e]xploring the features of language used in schooling highlights the relationship between language and learning in ways that reveal the close connection between language and content in all school subjects.

Knowing how knowledge is construed in language can make the relationship between language and learning a focus of attention in schools and help teachers… At the same time making explicit the way the curriculum is construed in language can also open up the curriculum to challenge or change by those who recognize its limitations or constraints.

For this social-constructionist view, the learning of new knowledge in a school context not only results from assimilating existing information, usually in the form of memorisation but also basically involves the construction by a community, in the case of the education context — a classroom, of the models that explain the world around.

A look at the Spanish case 7 It is this shift from mere transmission of knowledge to the emergence of meaning in the classroom, a typical feature of constructivism, which creates the conditions for the appearance of CLIL with its emphasis on scaffolding Coyle Thus, the progressive change in the dynamics of the classroom that is happening in the schools of the 21st century, where the role of the teacher gradually turns from the expert or authority figure into a facilitator or negotiator of meaning, is clearly paving the way for a CLIL methodology where the teacher, typically a non-native speaker, needs to adopt a new function in order to be able to cope with the requirements of teaching in a foreign language, among other aspects.

At the same time, the more active role of the students is also more congruent with the activities that are typical in a CLIL class. In the more specific territory of the language teaching profession, some of these methodological changes in the school have been coincident with the boom of the Communicative Language Teaching CLT approach and with some related developments such as the task-based curriculum or the Language for Specific Purposes movement.

This meant greater attention to meaning and authentic language use appropriate to the different situations in which the target language was used as a means to learn or to communicate. The result has been a continuum varying from strictly language-driven approaches to more content-driven ones cf. Metin Cenoz et al.

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In this section I will concentrate on some the factors that may have had an influence in the context of Spain by focussing on two main aspects: Thus, the same student when in contact with a group of academically bright colleagues will tend to perform better than when in contact with a group of low achievers.

Its importance in Spanish CLIL has to do with the voluntary nature of bilingual experiences in this country since parents are free to enrol their children in the programmes offered by schools. As a consequence, CLIL groups usually perform better and create the conditions for academic levels to be higher because both teachers and students realize the new context. The second related circumstance promoting the presence of CLIL in Spain is linked to the poor results in foreign language learning in this country.

As a consequence, there is a hard felt need, especially by parents from higher socio-cultural backgrounds, to overcome this situation and to offer their children additional opportunities to reach a FL level above the one the educational system seems to be providing.

By offering more contact with the FL and therefore increasing the amount of input, CLIL seems to be a reasonable option even at the expense of having to lower the standards in content subjects. Conclusion In this paper, I have outlined some of the trends that may help to understand why CLIL has become a success story.

In my opinion, CLIL experiences are not only the result of educational policies promoted by the European Union, which have no mandatory character and at most serve an endorsing function, but also, and perhaps mostly, the Explaining CLIL Success: A look at the Spanish case 9 outcome of theoretical developments, emerging social contexts and new educational approaches that created the conditions for its arrival and success.

Error analysis of written production. Vienna English Working Papers 16 3. Evaluation of bilingual secondary education in The Netherlands: English Educational Research and Evaluation 12 1. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Cognitive development in bilingual children. Language and Cognition 12 1. A reply to Lorenzo, Casal and Moore Applied Linguistics 32 2. Is CLIL so beneficial, or just selective? Re-evaluating some of the research. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism Critical analysis of CLIL: Taking stock and looking forward.

Applied Linguistics Advance access. Van Deusen-Scholl and N. Challenges in the implementation of a competency-based curriculum in Spain. Thinking Skills and Creativity L2 negation constructions at work. Language Learning 62 2. Publications Office of the European Union. First European survey on language competences: Developing Key Competences at School in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities for Policy.

Handbook of the Economics of Education Vol. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching 5 1. The roles of language in CLIL. Some thoughts on its psycholinguistic principles. CLIL research in Europe: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 15 3. Modern Languages across the Curriculum. The Language of Schooling: A functional linguistics perspective.

Achievement levels and affective factors. Language and Education 21 4. Teaching in English or English teaching? From Hellenism to Celan. A look at the Spanish case 11 Rorty, R. International Philosophical Quaterly 2. Language learning in European immersion classes. Models, methods and outcomes, Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research.

Human language, with the emergence of the Cognitive Sciences, contributes decisively to the opening of the interdisciplinary area which is already considered to be transversal, the Neurosciences.

Everything related to the processing of language information now holds its own in the exploration and interpretation of diverse ongoing processes, namely acquisition and learning, as well as processes involving lesions that affect language.

In Psilocybe the basidiospores have two views, a frontal view with or without angles and a lateral view always without angles. For 20 randomly selected basidiospores, length, width lateral viewand breadth frontal view were measured without including the apiculus.

Basidiospore wall was measure from photograph in the Axio Vision 4 software. We distinguish three wall thicknesses: Sterigmata were included in basidia measurements. The arrangement of the trama in the pileus and hymenophore in radial sections was described. Results and Discussion Forty type specimens were studied; only additional infonnation omitted in the protologue and subsequent publications is considered here.

Taxa are presented alphabetically by the basionym; the accepted name is given in bold. Six names are proposed in synonymy. Many terms have been applied to the specific shapes, but they were used inconsistently and sometimes with different meanings. Here, we used the following for frontal views: Rhomboid and hexagonal basidiospores can be present in the same specimen Fig. In lateral view, the basidiospores always lack angles Fig. With light microscopy, on rare occasion, the three layers can be seen Fig.

However, in most species, only two layers-the episporium and endosporium described by Singer -can be observed Fig. In sorne basidiospores, the layers were difficult to observe with light microscopy, andjust a thin one was evident Fig.

Chrysocystidia are either hyaline with refringen! Singer had already noticed that the content of sorne chrysocystidia in Psilocybe sect. Chrysocystidiatae is not yellowish in KOH. Leptocystidia are hyaline, thin-walled, and sometimes with a refringen! In Psilocybe there are also two kinds of cystidia: Deuterocystidia in Psilocybe Figs are present in sorne species, such as P. Deuterocystidial content is not always present or is not pigmented Fig.

At least with light microscopy, elucidating whether they are deuterocystidia or leptocystidia with pigmented vacuoles is difficult. In this work, we describe the following features of the cystidia: As already mentioned, the content of the cystidia of Psilocybe can be difficult to discem; however, in Deconica the chrysocystidia are recognizable with the aid of Patent blue V Fig.

Pileocystidia and caulocystidia are also imp01iant strnctures that we have added to descriptions for relevant species. According to Vellingathe pileipellis is a c01iical!

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In Psilocybe and Deconica, the pileipellis is a trne ixocutis Figs. The subpellis is occasionally differentiated; when present, it can be distinguished by the strongly pigment-encrnsted hyphae Fig. The arrangement of the hyphae in the pileus trama and subpellis can be interwoven Fig.

The pileus trama is never subcellular; such an interpretation from radial sections has been an ettoneous one. Here, we point out that the arrangement of the hyphae in the pileus trama is an importan! Furthermore, we observe that there are three types of subhymenium: We consider these hyphae as an importan!

In the present work, we have found them in the basal mycelium in P. Taxonomy Psilocybe acutipilea Speg. B asid i os por es Materia 1 ex ami 11 e d. Spegazzi11i LPSholotype. Fmihermore, we founcl that the pileipellis is an ixocutis, and we describe the basiclia characters. Pegler [ K Mholotype ]. Wc found pleurocystidia, but they were very clifficult to observe and measure. A similar species is P. It also resembles P. Basidiospore wall with three layers in frontal view, Psilocybe cubensis.

Hexagonal basidiospore, wall with two layers in frontal view, P. Subrhomboid basicliospore, wall with one layer in fro ntal view, P. Basidiospores without angles in lateral view, P.

Basidiospores without angles in frontal ancl lateral view, P. Hexagonal basidiospore in frontal view, P. Rhomboicl ancl subrhomboid basidiopores in frontal view, P. Hexagonal below and rhomboicl above basicliospores in frontal view, P.

Subrhomboid basidiospores in frontal view, P. Pileus trama radial, P. Pileipellis and pileus trama: Pileus trama radial, encrusted pigment in the wall, P. It is similar to P. Furthermore, the caulocystidia of P. See discussion under P.

Materia 1 examine d. An additional character is the presence of pileocystidia that were not described in the protologue. We propose this species as a synonym of P.

The presence of pileocystidia is not enough to consider them as separate species becanse this structure may or may not be present in the pileipellis or sometimes they are not noticed. For example, a new species from Japan, P. We have found pileocystidia in sorne specimens of P. Figs B asid i os por es x 4. This species was only found in the mixed ombrophilous forest of South Brazil, and it has not been collected again although there have been studies on Psilocybe in this vegetation type e.

Cellular subhymenium and basidiole, Psilocybe thaiduplicatocystidiata. Deuterocysticlium with homogeneous content, P.

Deuterocystidium with brown inclusion, P. Chrysocystidium in KOH, Deconica aureicystidiata. Chrysocysticlium in Patent blue V, D. Figs B asid i os por es 8. Furthermore, we point out in the present paper that the subhymenium is ramose and not cellular. The Psilocybe chiapanensis holotype agrees very well with P. Also, the micromorphological characters, shape and size of the basidiospores and pleurocystidia and shape of the cheilocystidia, are very similar in the two species.

Both types of cheilocystidia fit well with those observed 20 26 in the type of P. We found in the present study that P. We observed for P.

Taxonomía y análisis filogenético del género Psilocybe sensu lato (Fungi, Agaricales)

All the hyphae of the pileus trama are pigment-encrusted, so it is not possible to clearly separate them into two layers. Figs B asid i os por es We observed pleurocystidia, but they were scarce and difficult to see. This species is very similar to P. S u b p e 11 i s undifferentiated.

Materia 1 ex a n1 in e d. On the other hand, the type of P. Cunently, the reasons to consider P. Although, in the type of P.