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Principles of Epidemiology | Lesson 1 - Section 11

In terms of illness, it is an outbreak of any disease such as typhoid or influenza ( the "flu"). In comparison, an epidemic is similar but the disease affects a large. Jan 12, Add Flu Season as an interest to stay up to date on the latest Flu Season to the United States, or to other strains of the flu that are circulating. Published Date: [2] Rubella epidemic: Is vaccine enough ? Source: Yahoo Japan [translated, edited] Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that pregnant women who had no vaccination or past history of People who live in endemic areas and who lack rubella antibodies should undergo.

A pandemic is not a "one time" event and periods of illnesses may come in 2 or 3 "waves" anywhere from 3 to 12 months apart. The total duration of a pandemic is likely to be 12 to 18 months. What steps can I take to avoid getting the flu? The most important step you can take to reduce the chance of infection is to wash your hands regularly — always wash regularly with soap and warm water.

Individuals can also help reduce the spread of the virus by: Keeping your hands away from your face.

Pandemic Influenza (Flu)

Coughing and sneezing into your arm, not your hand. Keeping common surface areas clean and disinfected. If you get sick, stay home. Should a business plan for a pandemic flu? Workplaces should prepare a plan that allows for normal business operations to continue when many people will be sick or absent. Government of Canada, Canadian Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: Planning Guidance for the Health Sector When planning for a pandemic flu, remember a pandemic is not like the regular flu season, nor is it like a natural disaster such as a hurricane or serious ice or snow storm.

Remember, a pandemic will last much longer than a "one time" event and periods of illnesses may come in 2 or 3 "waves" anywhere from 3 to 12 months apart, and last overall between 12 and 18 months.

What should the business plan include? While impossible to predict, a business should plan for approximately one quarter to one third of employees being absent during a pandemic. While rare, some workplaces may need to close or be forced to close by order of a Medical or Public Health Office depending on the seriousness of the pandemic. When creating a business plan, remember that: Health care resources will be less available as there will be more patients to care for and many health care employees may be sick themselves or have to care for family members.

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Other business will be similarly affected less resources, sick employees, etc. Employees who are not sick themselves may have to stay home and care for family members.

Lesson 1: Introduction to Epidemiology

Alternatively, schools may be closed forcing parents to stay home. Please see the booklet Business Continuity Plan: Infectious Diseases for more information. Where can I get more information? As a pandemic "evolves", information may change quickly.

The following web sites and telephone services are good sources for the most current information: In some common-source outbreaks, case-patients may have been exposed over a period of days, weeks, or longer. In a continuous common-source outbreak, the range of exposures and range of incubation periods tend to flatten and widen the peaks of the epidemic curve Figure 1. The epidemic curve of an intermittent common-source outbreak often has a pattern reflecting the intermittent nature of the exposure.

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A propagated outbreak results from transmission from one person to another. Usually, transmission is by direct person-to-person contact, as with syphilis. Transmission may also be vehicleborne e. In propagated outbreaks, cases occur over more than one incubation period.

  • Flu now considered epidemic in US as hospitalizations climb during peak season
  • List of epidemics

The epidemic usually wanes after a few generations, either because the number of susceptible persons falls below some critical level required to sustain transmission, or because intervention measures become effective.

Some epidemics have features of both common-source epidemics and propagated epidemics. The pattern of a common-source outbreak followed by secondary person-to-person spread is not uncommon. These are called mixed epidemics.

Flu now considered epidemic in US as hospitalizations climb during peak season - ABC News

For example, a common-source epidemic of shigellosis occurred among a group of 3, women attending a national music festival Figure 1. Many developed symptoms after returning home. Over the next few weeks, several state health departments detected subsequent generations of Shigella cases propagated by person-to-person transmission from festival attendees.

An outbreak of shigellosis at an outdoor music festival. Am J Epidemiol ; Finally, some epidemics are neither common-source in its usual sense nor propagated from person to person.