Israel Lebanese Front. Surrounded in West Beirut and subjected to heavy bombardment, the PLO forces and their allies negotiated passage from Lebanon with the aid of United States Special Envoy Philip Habib and the protection of international peacekeepers. Following the assassination of Gemayel in September , Israel's position in Beirut became untenable and the signing of a peace treaty became increasingly unlikely. Outrage following the IDF's role in the Phalangist -perpetrated Sabra and Shatila massacre of Palestinians and Lebanese Shias , as well as Israeli popular disillusionment with the war, led to a gradual withdrawal from Beirut to the areas claimed by the Free Lebanon State in southern Lebanon later to become the South Lebanon security belt , which was initiated following the 17 May Agreement and Syria's change of attitude towards the PLO. At the same time, Shi'a militant groups began consolidating and waging a low-intensity guerrilla war over the Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon, leading to 15 years of low-scale armed conflict. The Lebanese Civil War would continue until , at which point Syria had established complete dominance over Lebanon. After the Arab-Israeli war , Lebanon became home to more than , Palestinian refugees , after their settlements in Palestine and Israel had been depopulated as a result of the war. The large influx of Palestinians from Jordan after the Black September conflict caused an additional demographic imbalance within Lebanese society and its democratic institutions established earlier by the National Pact. Continual violence near the Lebanese border occurred between Israel and the PLO starting from ; this peaked, following the relocation of PLO bases to Lebanon after the civil war in Jordan. In , Menachem Begin declared that Israel would not allow a genocide of Lebanese Christians, while refusing direct intervention.
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Former warlord Walid Jumblatt is exactly the kind of political figure Lebanese protesters are hoping to oust, but he says he hopes to see the protesters succeed. During Lebanon's civil war Mr Jumblatt was the leader of the People's Liberation Army, a powerful militia made up of the country's Druze religious minority. I have to give a message of hope to a new generation. Like many former militia leaders, Mr Jumblatt entered politics after the war, becoming a powerbroker in Lebanon's Parliament, which is divided along religious lines in a power-sharing deal that brought an end to the civil war. Now, a mass protest movement is challenging Mr Jumblatt's generation of political leaders, accusing them of corruption and using the sectarian constitution to keep a firm grip on power for themselves. This is the first time in the history of Lebanon there is such an upheaval away from sectarianism, from the north to the south [of the country]" he said. The Druze leader, who once fought against Christian adversaries alongside his allies the Palestinian Liberation Organisation, said the movement against sectarianism gave him hope. Lebanon's economic woes have fuelled the mass protests sweeping Lebanon.
Its current leader is Walid Jumblatt , who has led the party since The founders comprised six individuals, all of different backgrounds. The most notable of these was Kamal Jumblatt Walid Jumblatt's father. From through the party had between 9 and 23 deputies in parliament. Despite Jumblatt's initial reluctance to engage in paramilitarism, it built its own powerful military wing, the People's Liberation Army PLA which proved to be one of the strongest private armies in the Lebanese Civil War of to It conquered much of Mount Lebanon and the Chouf District. Its main adversaries were the Kataeb Regulatory Forces militia, and later the Lebanese Forces militia which absorbed the Kataeb. His son Walid succeeded him as leader of the party. From the Israeli withdrawal from the Chouf in to the end of the civil war, the PSP ran a highly effective civil administration, the Civil Administration of the Mountain, in the area under its control. This was a sad hallmark of the Lebanese Civil War because the innocent people were the ones who paid the highest price.
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