What is the origin of the name al-Qaida? | Books | The Guardian
But while the US response inflicted real damage on al-Qaeda, the This doesn't mean the threat al-Qaeda poses to Americans is larger than it. date. c. - present. related people. Osama bin Laden · Anwar al- There are several branches and affiliates of al Qaeda; ISIS, or ISIL. Two decades ago, Osama bin Laden officially launched al-Qaeda's and the United States, which has had five distinct eras to date. . ISIS seized land in Syria and Iraq and made the caliphate real. Al-Qaeda's failure in the Twenty Years' War, however, doesn't mean the United States was victorious.
Documents captured in the raid on bin Laden's compound in show that the core al-Qaeda membership in was The lack of any significant numbers of convicted al-Qaeda members, despite a large number of arrests on terrorism charges, was cited by the documentary as a reason to doubt whether a widespread entity that met the description of al-Qaeda existed. The first, numbering in the tens of thousands, was "organized, trained, and equipped as insurgent combat forces" in the Soviet—Afghan war.
Many of these fighters went on to fight in Bosnia and Somalia for global jihad. Another group, which numbered 10, inlive in the West and have received rudimentary combat training. Batterjee was designated as a terror financier by the US Department of the Treasury inand Julaidan is recognized as one of al-Qaeda's founders.
Qatar and state-sponsored terrorism and Qatar diplomatic crisis Several Qatari citizens have been accused of funding al-Qaeda. Nuaimi was also accused of investing funds in the charity directed by Humayqani to ultimately fund AQAP.
Subayi's name was added to the UN Security Council 's Sanctions List in on charges of providing financial and material support to al-Qaeda senior leadership. Al-Qaeda defector al-Fadl, who was a former member of Qatar Charity, testified in court that Abdullah Mohammed Yusef, who served as Qatar Charity's director, was affiliated to al-Qaeda and simultaneously to the National Islamic Fronta political group that gave al-Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden harbor in Sudan in the early s.
Arnaout revealed that Qatar Charity was cited by Bin Laden in as one of the charities used to channel financial support to al-Qaeda operatives overseas.
What is the origin of the name al-Qaida?
This accusation was publicly denied by Hamad bin Nasser al-Thani. The funding is primarily channeled through kidnapping for ransom. Al-Nusra acknowledged a Qatar-sponsored campaign "as one of the preferred conduits for donations intended for the group". Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Provoke the United States and the West into invading a Muslim country by staging a massive attack or string of attacks on US soil that results in massive civilian casualties.
Incite local resistance to occupying forces. Expand the conflict to neighboring countries, and engage the US and its allies in a long war of attrition. Convert al-Qaeda into an ideology and set of operating principles that can be loosely franchised in other countries without requiring direct command and control, and via these franchises incite attacks against the US and countries allied with the US until they withdraw from the conflict, as happened with the Madrid train bombingsbut which did not have the same effect with the July 7, London bombings.
The US economy will finally collapse by the yearunder the strain of multiple engagements in numerous places. This will lead to a collapse in the worldwide economic system, and lead to global political instability. This will lead to a global jihad led by al-Qaeda, and a Wahhabi Caliphate will then be installed across the world. Atwan noted that, while the plan is unrealistic, "it is sobering to consider that this virtually describes the downfall of the Soviet Union.
The goal of the phase is to provoke the United States to attack a Muslim country by executing an attack on US soil that kills many civilians.
The goal of this phase was to recruit young men to the cause and to transform the al-Qaeda group into a movement.
Al-Qaeda - Wikipedia
Iraq was supposed to become the center of all operations with financial and military support for bases in other states. In this phase, al-Qaeda wanted to execute additional attacks and focus their attention on Syria. Hussein believed that other countries in the Arabian Peninsula were also in danger. Al-Qaeda expected a steady growth among their ranks and territories due to the declining power of the regimes in the Arabian Peninsula.
The main focus of attack in this phase was supposed to be on oil suppliers and cyberterrorismtargeting the US economy and military infrastructure. The declaration of an Islamic Caliphate, which was projected between and Many people appear to think al-Qaida's name emerged from some idea of a physical base - a command centre from where Bin Laden and other leaders could direct operations.
Bin Laden himself has spoken, post-September 11, of being in "a very safe place". There have also been stories that his father had a vernal estate called al-Qaida in Yemen or Saudi Arabia. Could there be a sense in which the name of the organisation represents a notion of the eternal home in the consciousness of its fugitive leader? On the surface, the most improbable explanation of the name is that Bin Laden was somehow inspired by a Russian-born writer who lived most of his life in the US and was once the world's most prolific sci-fi novelist born in in Smolensk, Asimov died in New York in But the deeper you dig, the more plausible it seems that al-Qaida's founders may have borrowed some rhetoric from Foundation and its successors it became a series and possibly from other science fiction material.
As Nick Mamatas argued in an article on sci-fi fans in Gadfly magazine, "even the terror of September 11th had science fictional overtones: Science fiction has often featured "evil empires" against which are set utopian ideas whose survival must be fought for against the odds by a small but resourceful band of men.
Such empires often turn out to be amazingly fragile when faced by intelligent idealists. Intelligent idealists who are also psychopaths might find comfort in a fictional role model - especially one created by a novelist famous for castigating that "amiable dunce" Ronald Reagan: Beset by overconsumption, corruption and inefficiency, "it had been falling for centuries before one man really became aware of that fall. That man was Hari Seldon, the man who represented the one spark of creative effort left among the gathering decay.
He developed and brought to its highest pitch the science of psycho-history. He sets up his Foundation in a remote corner of the galaxy, hoping to build a new civilisation from the ruins of the old. The Empire attacks the Foundation with all its military arsenal and tries to crush it.
Seldon uses a religion based on scientific illusionism to further his aims. These are tracked by the novel and its sequels across a vast tract of time. For the most part, his predictions come true. Seldon, like Bin Laden, transmits videotaped messages for his followers, recorded in advance. There is also some similarity in geopolitical strategy. Seldon's vision seems oddly like the way Bin Laden has conceived his campaign. Perhaps reading the book in his pampered youth, and later on seeing his destiny in terms of the ruthless manipulation of historical forces?
Did he realise much earlier than anyone else that the march of globalisation would provide opportunities for those who wanted to rouse and exploit the dispossessed?
If Bin Laden did read Asimov, when was it? It is clear that from an early age he consumed western products and media, until a fundamentalist reversion occurred when he met the Palestinian preacher Abdullah Azzam, who was to be a crucial influence.
As Bin Laden's best biographer, Yossef Bodansky, puts it, he "started the s as did many other sons of the affluent and well-connected - breaking the strict Muslim lifestyle in Saudi Arabia with sojourns in cosmopolitan Beirut. While in high school and college, Osama visited Beirut often, frequenting flashy nightclubs, casinos, and bars. He was a drinker and womaniser, which often got him into bar brawls.
Maybe he read an English version, bought in one of Beirut's English-language bookshops, or during a trip to the US or London where he bought property in Wembley. Was there any science fiction for him to read in Arabic?Fallujah Has Fallen to Al-Qaeda
A search dating from to the present of the Index Translationem, Unesco's register of translated books, reveals a reasonable amount of classic fantastic fiction in Arabic: But so far as 20th-century science fiction is concerned, a search found only two clear-cut examples: Maybe, says Dennis Lien from the University of Minnesota, who made the search, the fabled Arabic edition of Foundation was published prior to and has not been reprinted since, but passed from hand to hand.
It features a mysterious man whose followers, Arabic-speaking sons of the desert, live in caves and tunnels. They engage in a religious jihad against a corrupt imperialist civilisation.
The case that science fiction, and in particular Asimov, could have had an effect on Bin Laden is strengthened by their better documented effects on other psychopathic personalities. Japan's Aum Shinrikyo sect - which released 11 packets of deadly sarin gas into the Tokyo subway in - was also apparently trying to build a community of scientists modelled on the members of Asimov's Foundation.
This is backed up by others. According to Yoichi Clark Shimatsu, former editor of the Japan Times Weekly, "The ultimate purpose of the guild, said the sect's science minister Hideo Murai, before he was murdered by a Korean gangster, is to rebuild civilisation after a cataclysm and to combat the powerful globalist institutions that are bringing on an apocalypse.
Believed to have been from Aum sympathisers, it gives a sense of how seriously the sect's members took Asimov and science fiction more generally. The letter, which promised an attack on the Tokaimura nuclear reprocessing plant, embedded its threat in a passage of literary criticism. Instead, this critic asserted, science fiction is really about surviving catastrophe, and is therefore optimistic - and the key to the genre is the longing for a sense of scientific community resembling the craft guilds of the past.
It was obviously selected as a defense of the Aum sect's effort to build a community of scientists modelled after Isaac Asimov's Foundation series. There had been other, more minor incidents. All are generally attributed to human error, but Shimatsu believes they may be connected to a second, resurgent wing of Aum working in the nuclear industry on Asimovian lines.