Talking about HIV | Swiss Aids Federation
AHS Swiss Aids Federation (Aids-Hilfe Schweiz) How can Switzerland assure timely testing of persons infected with HIV, referral for treat-. ment and support. “Criminal justice handling of HIV/AIDS in Switzerland in the light of HIV/AIDS prevention concerns: status quo, reflection, conclusions”, headed Kurt Pärli, University of applied of legal precedent on criminal justice handling of HIV/ AIDS to date is to For the Swiss AIDS Federation (Aids-Hilfe Schweiz – AHS) as a partner in. To estimate life expectancy over 25 years in HIV-positive people and to and important to monitor and predict the progress of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and to nationality, profession, and, if applicable, date of birth of partner and date of birth of Available from sheptonmallet.info master.
Comparisons of life expectancy in HIV-positive people and the general population are fraught with difficulties, particularly in high-income countries. People living with HIV have lifestyles and behaviors that may reduce their life expectancy, regardless of their HIV infection. For example, HIV-positive people have higher rates of smoking, alcohol, and recreational drug use, and higher rates of other sexually transmitted co-infections and hepatitis C [ 10 — 14 ].
Ideally, lifestyle and behaviors would be measured comprehensively both in the HIV-positive and in the general population, using standardized methods. However, such data are not available from the vital registration systems used to estimate life expectancy in the general population. Matching HIV-positive people to members of the general population for variables that are associated with lifestyles and behaviors is one way to address this issue.
The level of education is associated with lifestyles both in HIV-positive people and in the general population [ 1516 ], and the association of education with life expectancy is well documented in many general populations [ 17 — 19 ]. Level of education is assessed in categories that match those used by the Swiss National Cohort SNC [ 21 ], a census-based longitudinal study of mortality in Switzerland. We analyzed life expectancy in the SHCS — and compared life expectancy across levels of education with life expectancy in the general Swiss population, using the data from the SNC.
Adults aged 16 years or older are followed up at University outpatient clinics, Cantonal hospitals, and private practices. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical parameters are collected at enrolment and then in 6-monthly intervals.
Antiretroviral treatment is documented at enrolment and follow-up visits. All participants aged 20 years and older enrolled in the SHCS between 1 January and 31 December were eligible for the present analysis. The SNC is a longitudinal study of mortality in the resident population of Switzerland, based on the and national censuses [ 21 ].
In brief, deterministic and probabilistic record linkage [ 24 ] was performed using the Generalized Record Linkage System [ 25 ] to link census records to a death record or an emigration record, based on a set of key variables that are available in all data sets sex, date of birth, place of residence, marital status, religion, nationality, profession, and, if applicable, date of birth of partner and date of birth of children.
Enumeration in the Swiss census was near-complete: For the present study, analyses were restricted to residents aged 20 years or older.
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We drew a random sample of up to individuals from census for each patient enrolled in the SHCS and alive on 1 Januarymatched for sex, year of birth, and level of education. Comparisons and definitions The two datasets allowed consistent definitions of educational level as higher education, vocational training, or compulsory school.
We further examined life expectancy by period of enrolment into the study, defined by the type of ART available during the period: Estimates of life expectancy were calculated for each treatment era by educational level, main source of income, HIV transmission group, history of injection drug use IDUsmoking status, and presentation at enrolment.
Smoking status was classified as never, former, or current. Individuals who had used injection drugs within 6 months of registration were classified as current IDU. Statistical analysis We used parametric survival regression to model life expectancy. Estimates of life expectancy were calculated assuming a Gompertz distribution [ 2829 ], overall and by education and other subgroups with at least patients and at least 20 deaths.
In all models, age was the underlying time scale. Talking about HIV is an opportunity Telling your partner that you have been diagnosed as HIV-positive takes courage, but it can also be a huge weight off your mind. A difficult secret is easier to bear if there are two of you.
Someone to confide in can be an enormous source of support, especially on the rollercoaster of emotions which immediately follows diagnosis. Your partner can also help you to manage your infection and any therapy. Whether you have to go to the doctor, take medication or just aren't feeling well, you can be open about the reasons. It may well be that your partner will see your openness as proof of your trust.
The information that you are HIV-positive is confidential by law. This means that nobody can pass on the information without your permission. Let your partner know that breaching this data protection rule can have legal implications.
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Once you have told someone that you are HIV-positive, you can never un-tell them. The more people know about your infection, the less control you have over who finds out. Whether or not to tell your partner is your very personal decision. However, you should also consider the possible implications for them before you say anything. Not everyone deals equally well with the news. It may be too much for them, causing them to withdraw. Offer information about your life with HIV to allay their fears and break down their prejudices.
Should you worry about being taken to court by previous sexual partners? In theory, a former sexual partner could make a criminal complaint against you. However, to win a court case the complainant would have to have contracted HIV, and would have to prove not only that the infection came from you, but also that you were aware — or must have been aware — that you were HIV-positive. What should you do next?
For as long as you yourself are not sure how to handle your diagnosis, you should only tell people you really trust. Only you can decide when. Coming out as HIV-positive can provoke any sort of reaction. That's why it is important that you feel secure and that you are self-confident when talking about your infection. Those you tell are bound to have a lot of questions, so don't simply mention it in passing. Instead, wait for a quiet moment when you have time to give answers.
When you tell your partner, you need to cover some core issues. Who else should you tell?